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物理所等二維電子氣的高效自旋-電荷轉換效應研究取得進展

文章來源:物理研究所   發布時間:2019-03-22  【字號:     】  

  自旋流的產生、調控以及自旋流-電流的轉換是自旋電子學研究的核心問題。在上世紀90年代,V. M. Edelstein 預言與二維體系電流傳輸方向相垂直的方向上會產生純自旋流,即Edelstein效應。與此相反,當自旋流被注入二維電子體系時,二維界面的Rashba效應可使電子發生與自旋取向有關的定向偏轉,產生相應的電信號,這就是所謂的逆Edelstein效應。近年來人們在Rashba界面、二維材料以及拓撲材料表面態中均觀察到由于Edelstein效應和逆Edelstein效應產生的高效的自旋流和電荷流相互轉換。

  氧化物二維電子氣體系(LaAlO3/SrTiO3)是一個理想的Rashba界面,是實現自旋流和電荷流相互轉化的理想載體。中國科學院物理研究所/北京凝聚態物理國家研究中心磁學國家重點實驗室孫繼榮團隊與北京大學教授韓偉合作,利用鐵磁共振實現自旋泵浦的辦法,在LaAlO3/SrTiO3界面觀察到了自旋與電荷流之間的相互轉化,其自旋信號可以持續到室溫,并且可以利用門電壓進行調控(Sci. Adv. 3, e1602312 (2017))。利用上述辦法雖然觀察到了自旋流與電荷流之間的相互轉化,但這其中存在著兩個問題一直困擾著研究人員,一是自旋泵浦效應存在著寄生信號,影響對真實信號的判斷;二是自旋流在傳輸的過程中要穿過絕緣的LaAlO3層,極大地降低了自旋注入效率。

  經過長時間探索,最近該團隊成功得到了EuO/KTaO3磁性二維電子氣 (Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 116803 (2018))。這是首例由磁性絕緣體/高介電絕緣體構成的新型二維電子氣。EuO是鐵磁絕緣體,與KTaO3界面形成導電界面。由于EuO對于KTaO3界面的磁鄰近誘導效應,EuO/KTaO3 二維電子氣顯示了明顯的鐵磁特征。同時,由于磁性EuO與二維電子氣直接接觸,借助這一設計可以克服非磁性絕緣層的阻礙作用,實現從EuO到二維電子氣的直接自旋流注入,并通過二維電子氣的逆Edelstein效應實現自旋流–電荷流的轉換。

  最近,在孫繼榮指導下,博士研究生張洪瑞等人利用熱自旋注入的辦法,通過二維電子氣的轉換作用,成功實現了自旋流-電荷流的高效轉化。具體實驗過程是,首先在EuO中建立溫度梯度,利用溫度梯度驅動非平衡磁振子擴散,進而形成自旋流。由于EuO和二維電子氣的密切接觸,磁振子自旋流直接注入KTaO3界面層的二維電子氣中。由于界面的Rashba 效應,自旋注入引起電子動量不對稱分布,從而產生電流輸出。由于沒有非磁性絕緣阻擋層,以及界面二維電子氣的強Edelstein效應,自旋-電荷轉換是高效的。簡單的比較表明,在同樣磁性層厚度下,低溫下EuO/KTaO3二維電子氣的自旋塞貝克系數是YIG/Pt異質結的19倍,而YIG/Pt是公認的最優自旋塞貝克體系。通過系統研究,他們還進一步確定了非平衡磁振子在EuO中的擴散長度為16 nm。

  以往利用自旋泵浦對氧化物界面進行自旋注入,是通過在磁性層與二維電子氣之間交換電子實現的,且中間間隔非磁性絕緣層。該研究中自旋流由EuO中非平衡磁振子的擴散形成,且直接注入EuO/KTaO3界面,通過磁振子與界面電子的交換作用及自旋-電子動量鎖定效應實現轉換,因而是一種新的注入與轉換方式。這一工作揭示了磁性二維電子氣的新特性及氧化物自旋電子學研究的巨大潛力。

  該工作中的樣品制備與韓偉合作完成。

  這一工作發表在Nano Letters上(Nano Letters 19, 1605 (2019))。該工作得到科技部、國家自然科學基金委項目和中科院重點項目的支持。

  文章鏈接

    圖1. EuO/KTaO3界面的熱自旋注入和逆Edelstein效應示意圖。(a) 自旋塞貝克逆Edelstein效應的實驗裝置圖。(b) Rashba型二維電子系統的能帶結構。(c) 處于平衡狀態和非平衡狀態的費米面。

    圖2. EuO/KTaO3界面的自旋塞貝克逆Edelstein效應,其中EuO厚度是15 nm。(a) 左列是不同溫度下熱電電流隨磁場的變化;水平列是不同加熱功率下熱電電流隨磁場的變化。(b) 熱電電流隨樣品溫度的變化,加熱功率是65 mW。(c) 熱電電流隨加熱功率的變化,樣品溫度是10 K。

    圖3. 不同EuO厚度樣品的自旋塞貝克逆Edelstein效應。(a) 不同EuO厚度樣品熱電電流隨磁場的變化,測試溫度是10K,施加的溫度梯度是18.8 K/cm。(b) 熱電電流隨EuO厚度的變化。

    圖4. 自旋塞貝克系數隨著EuO/KTaO3和YIG/Pt 異質結中磁性層厚度的變化,溫度固定在10K,Pt的厚度在5~10 nm。




(責任編輯:葉瑞優)

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